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August 20th, 2016

ESXi & NFS 4.1

No Comments, Linux, Misc, Tips & Tricks, by andarius.

I recently rebuilt my NAS machine using Arch Linux. When I got things going again my ESXi machine would not mount the NFS exports using the VSphere Client application. I managed to get the share mounted but only by using the esxcli commands.

Seems that NFS 4.1 is supported by ESXi 6.x and later but only using the full VSphere client or the cli commands.

esxcli storage nfs41 add -H=10.2.2.232 --readonly --share=/media

December 29th, 2015

Score Clock

No Comments, Hardware, by andarius.

A project I have been working on has finally come to be near complete. As a gift, I build a custom clock using an arduino, a Chronodot RTC, some bi-color 8×8 matrix displays and some other random parts. I hope to post the details soon. Till then, some pics:

Clock Front

Clock Front

The matrix displays will do green, red and amber. The reason for the display choice was color. They match the team colors. The display color is set via a button on the side, and at the roll of the minute the top 4 displays show a color correct U for 10 seconds.

Clock controls

Clock controls

Functions working are time, color change, auto dimming and sounds (beeps for control input). Functions to be compeleted are alarm, score (it is a score clock after all) and timer.

November 23rd, 2015

Current S6 Screens

No Comments, Screen Shots, by andarius.

My current home screens on my Galaxy S6. Decorated with Zooper, Chronus (news and calendar) and Beautiful Widgets weather.

Home - center

Home – center

 

Home - left

Home – left

 

Home - right

Home – right

November 6th, 2015

pfsense & ELK

10 Comments, News, Security, Tips & Tricks, by andarius.

I recently came across a blog post that inspired me to install ELK on a server and pipe the log data to it from pfsense. Fantastic article, fantastic dashboard and wonderful inspiration. I banged my way through things armed with the blog post and several Internet searches. In the end I now have this to admire at will:

ELK and pfsense

ELK and pfsense

I have made several modifications along the way as I plan to break out and visualize much more than just the firewall data which is seen in the above screen shot. More to come on that later hopefully!

Some reference pages:

And the author of the original post that inspired me to get moving is working on updates:

Update 1:

I changed the map display to be heat-map from “Scaled Circle Markers”. Looks much nicer:

pfsense & ELK #2

pfsense & ELK #2

Update 2:

Tracking other events by time:

Service Events by Time

Service Events by Time

Update 3:

Grok patterns file can be found HERE

Logstash configuration files:

There is a section at the bottom of the patterns file for radius log entries. I have it commented out as pfsense is no longer acting as my radius server. The more recent versions of freeradius properly support TLS and those are not available on pfsense as of yet. The largest issue this causes is android v6.x clients can not authenticate.

Update 4:

I had to rebuild my ELK server (unexplained death). After some reading I have exported the external firewall dashboard. The file can be found : here

Update 5:

  • Current Dashboard – here
  • Visualizations Export – here

Update 6:

  • Saved Searches Export – here

October 29th, 2015

Zabbix & Maps

No Comments, News, by andarius.

I have been working to tweak an install of Zabbix to monitor my internal network. I like the map feature quite a bit due to its ability to customize. Here is a map of my primary infrastructure with active links which show the port and link speed. By active I mean they change to red dotted lines if the link goes down and the link speed is what is currently reported via SNMP.

Infrastructure Map

Infrastructure Map

October 8th, 2015

Nokia IP690 & pfsense – Bandwidth

No Comments, Hardware, Security, by andarius.

This is long overdue and I was reminded of that by a comment asking what the throughput looks like for this configuration. So, without further ado, here are some bandwidth numbers from iperf3 passing through a Nokia IP-690 running pfsense. Note this is on my live network so there is other traffic present and lots of other variables like switches and so forth, it is not a clean pass only through the IP-690.

Graphs from a sixty (60) seccond run using TCP:

Bandwidth Graph

Bandwidth Graph

 

Packet Retr

Packet Retr

 

Data Transfer

Data Transfer

Ten second TCP test:

iperf3 --get-server-output -c 10.2.4.200
Connecting to host 10.2.4.200, port 5201
[  4] local 10.2.2.210 port 52139 connected to 10.2.4.200 port 5201
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-1.00   sec   114 MBytes   960 Mbits/sec    0    700 KBytes       
[  4]   1.00-2.00   sec   112 MBytes   944 Mbits/sec   29    728 KBytes       
[  4]   2.00-3.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec    1    608 KBytes       
[  4]   3.00-4.00   sec   112 MBytes   944 Mbits/sec    0    738 KBytes       
[  4]   4.00-5.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec   22    594 KBytes       
[  4]   5.00-6.00   sec   112 MBytes   944 Mbits/sec    0    727 KBytes       
[  4]   6.00-7.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec    9    602 KBytes       
[  4]   7.00-8.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec    0    731 KBytes       
[  4]   8.00-9.00   sec   112 MBytes   944 Mbits/sec    4    614 KBytes       
[  4]   9.00-10.00  sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec    0    741 KBytes       
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  1.09 GBytes   940 Mbits/sec   65             sender
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  1.09 GBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  receiver

Server output:
-----------------------------------------------------------
Accepted connection from 10.2.2.210, port 52138
[  5] local 10.2.4.200 port 5201 connected to 10.2.2.210 port 52139
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
[  5]   0.00-1.00   sec   108 MBytes   902 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   1.00-2.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   2.00-3.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   3.00-4.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   4.00-5.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   5.00-6.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   6.00-7.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   7.00-8.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   8.00-9.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   9.00-10.00  sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  


iperf Done.

Ten second UDP test:

iperf3 -u -b 0 --get-server-output -c 10.2.4.200
Connecting to host 10.2.4.200, port 5201
[  4] local 10.2.2.210 port 54410 connected to 10.2.4.200 port 5201
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Total Datagrams
[  4]   0.00-1.00   sec   114 MBytes   959 Mbits/sec  14630  
[  4]   1.00-2.00   sec   114 MBytes   958 Mbits/sec  14620  
[  4]   2.00-3.00   sec   114 MBytes   958 Mbits/sec  14620  
[  4]   3.00-4.00   sec   114 MBytes   957 Mbits/sec  14620  
[  4]   4.00-5.00   sec   114 MBytes   959 Mbits/sec  14620  
[  4]   5.00-6.00   sec   114 MBytes   958 Mbits/sec  14620  
[  4]   6.00-7.00   sec   114 MBytes   958 Mbits/sec  14620  
[  4]   7.00-8.00   sec   114 MBytes   959 Mbits/sec  14630  
[  4]   8.00-9.00   sec   114 MBytes   958 Mbits/sec  14620  
[  4]   9.00-10.00  sec   114 MBytes   958 Mbits/sec  14620  
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Jitter    Lost/Total Datagrams
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  1.12 GBytes   958 Mbits/sec  0.102 ms  962/146210 (0.66%)  
[  4] Sent 146210 datagrams

Server output:
-----------------------------------------------------------
Accepted connection from 10.2.2.210, port 52162
[  5] local 10.2.4.200 port 5201 connected to 10.2.2.210 port 54410
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Jitter    Lost/Total Datagrams
[  5]   0.00-1.00   sec   109 MBytes   916 Mbits/sec  0.111 ms  0/13977 (0%)  
[  5]   1.00-2.00   sec   114 MBytes   952 Mbits/sec  0.117 ms  91/14619 (0.62%)  
[  5]   2.00-3.00   sec   113 MBytes   952 Mbits/sec  0.105 ms  97/14624 (0.66%)  
[  5]   3.00-4.00   sec   113 MBytes   952 Mbits/sec  0.122 ms  90/14617 (0.62%)  
[  5]   4.00-5.00   sec   113 MBytes   952 Mbits/sec  0.120 ms  90/14614 (0.62%)  
[  5]   5.00-6.00   sec   113 MBytes   951 Mbits/sec  0.117 ms  116/14621 (0.79%)  
[  5]   6.00-7.00   sec   113 MBytes   950 Mbits/sec  0.115 ms  133/14624 (0.91%)  
[  5]   7.00-8.00   sec   113 MBytes   951 Mbits/sec  0.098 ms  116/14623 (0.79%)  
[  5]   8.00-9.00   sec   113 MBytes   951 Mbits/sec  0.128 ms  113/14623 (0.77%)  
[  5]   9.00-10.00  sec   113 MBytes   951 Mbits/sec  0.110 ms  113/14623 (0.77%)  


iperf Done.

Some additional details on the graphs can be found here.

October 8th, 2015

Bandwidth Testing

No Comments, Tips & Tricks, by andarius.

In an effort to get some details on bandwidth through a device iperf is the perfect tool. It is also very easy to set use.

In the following examples I am using my desktop machine on the local LAN of my firewall and a server in the DMZ, also off the firewall. The topology looks about like this:

Simple Network

Simple Network

iperf has two modes of operation, client and server. The roles are pretty self explanatory. First start the server on a machine:

iperf3 -s

Next start iperf on another machine to act as the client, which will connect to the server and start the test. For this test I started the client on my desktop system specifying the servers IP:

iperf3 -c 10.2.4.200

With no special options the output should look like this on the server side:

-----------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on 5201
-----------------------------------------------------------
Accepted connection from 10.2.2.210, port 51552
[  5] local 10.2.4.200 port 5201 connected to 10.2.2.210 port 51553
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
[  5]   0.00-1.00   sec   107 MBytes   899 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   1.00-2.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   2.00-3.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   3.00-4.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   4.00-5.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   5.00-6.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   6.00-7.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   7.00-8.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   8.00-9.00   sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]   9.00-10.00  sec   112 MBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  
[  5]  10.00-10.04  sec  4.80 MBytes   936 Mbits/sec                  
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  5]   0.00-10.04  sec  1.09 GBytes   937 Mbits/sec   24             sender
[  5]   0.00-10.04  sec  1.09 GBytes   934 Mbits/sec                  receiver
-----------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on 5201
-----------------------------------------------------------

And this is from the client side:

Connecting to host 10.2.4.200, port 5201
[  4] local 10.2.2.210 port 51553 connected to 10.2.4.200 port 5201
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
[  4]   0.00-1.00   sec   115 MBytes   964 Mbits/sec    0    691 KBytes       
[  4]   1.00-2.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec    1    727 KBytes       
[  4]   2.00-3.00   sec   112 MBytes   944 Mbits/sec    1    604 KBytes       
[  4]   3.00-4.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec    0    734 KBytes       
[  4]   4.00-5.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec    7    621 KBytes       
[  4]   5.00-6.00   sec   112 MBytes   944 Mbits/sec    0    745 KBytes       
[  4]   6.00-7.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec   11    634 KBytes       
[  4]   7.00-8.00   sec   112 MBytes   944 Mbits/sec    0    757 KBytes       
[  4]   8.00-9.00   sec   111 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec    4    645 KBytes       
[  4]   9.00-10.00  sec   112 MBytes   944 Mbits/sec    0    768 KBytes       
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  1.09 GBytes   941 Mbits/sec   24             sender
[  4]   0.00-10.00  sec  1.09 GBytes   938 Mbits/sec                  receiver

iperf Done.

The client will exit once it is complete while the server will continue to run until it is killed. The server also has a daemon mode should you want to run a lot of tests.

To get a better idea of throughput I prefer a longer run. In most of my tests I will use a 60 second test which is done by specifying “-t 60” on the client side.

To make things look fancy the results can be graphed. To accomplish this task I dump the output of iperf into a file while filtering it to remove excess. Then take the resulting file and plot the data points using gnuplot. I am currently working on the plot script, but at present it produces three graphs, one each for Bandwidth, ReTries (TCP retries), and Transfer (amount of data transfered). The three key points of a TCP test.

Server:

iperf3 -s

Client:

iperf3 -t 60 -c 10.2.4.200 | grep KBytes | awk '{ print $3"\t"$5"\t"$7"\t"$9 }' > results.dat

And the out of the gnuplot script (forgive the blur, as it is from the resizing of the images on the fly. Click the image for a full size, clear look):

Bandwidth Graph

Bandwidth Graph

 

Packet Retr

Packet Retr

 

Data Transfer

Data Transfer

iperf can also test UDP as well as multicast. Both items for another post.

My current working gnuplot script can be found here. To generate graphs fromt the data generated using the client command above one would simply:

gnuplot < graph-tcp-data.p

September 9th, 2015

Zabbix & Interface Triggers

No Comments, Tips & Tricks, by andarius.

I recently went on the hunt for something to monitor my network. In the end I landed on Zabbix for several reasons (outside the scope of this post).

By default when it discovers a host and runs it prototypes it creates items for each network interface and a trigger for a state change. Nice an informational but not overly practical outside of providing an informational note. Mainly as this only denotes a state change and triggers when it first occurs but clears on the next check that returns the same state.

A simple trigger can easily be added to each interface that allows the system to alert on an interface being down. I included a check for the administrative state to make sure it does not alert on an interface the should be down.

The text for such a trigger is fairly straight forward and checks the last value for the admin status and the last value for the operational status. A sample from my router/firewall named silicon:

{silicon:ifAdminStatus[em0].last(#1)}=1 and {silicon:ifOperStatus[em0].last(#1)}>1

The trigger rule is two part with each part containing:

{$HOST:$KEY[$INTERFACE].$RESULTVALUE}=$DESIREDVALUE

  • $HOST = Host you want to check against
  • $KEY = The key you wish to check. This is defined in the item configuration
  • $INTERFACE = The interface we are checking
  • $RESULTVALUE = The result value we wish to check. In this case, the last, one result value
  • $DESIREDVALUE = What we want to trigger on.
    • For Admin Status 1 = Up
    • For Oper Status 1 = Up, above 1 = various states not up

A screen capture from the web UI for the same example:

Interface Down Trigger

Interface Down Trigger

Now when my interfaces go down (and should not) I get a full alert that remains until things are corrected.

For reference : Interfaces and SNMP values

June 5th, 2015

Checkpoint IP2455 (Nokia IP2450)

No Comments, Hardware, by andarius.

In my ongoing search for awesoem hardware to use as a firewall I recently loaded up a Nokia IP690 with pfSense. This was an awesome success and it is running great. Of course it is limited by certain factors and I wanted to see about something less limited. Enter the Checkpoint IP2455.

Checkpoint IP2455

Checkpoint IP2455

More

May 8th, 2015

Nokia IP690 – Hardware

1 Comment, Hardware, by andarius.

The Nokia IP690 is a 1u form factor rack mount unit. Aside from that the internal hardware is almost shrouded in secrecy it seems as little is known or published about it on the Internet. I hope to shed a little light on that here…

Nokia IP690

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